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常见废气处理方法这里都有!


       近年来,大气污染防治引起全球关注,废气处理引起各行业重视。大气污染是全球目前最突出的环境问题之一,其污染物的主要来源是工业废气,工业废气由于生产的工艺不同,产生的污染物种类不同,不同污染物种类应采用不同的处理工艺。


1有机废气


1)主要来源:工业生产中会产生各种有机物废气,主要包括各种烃类、醇类、醛类、酸类、酮类和胺类等。这些废气的来源十分广泛,其中一些化学行业石化、有机合成反应设备排气,印刷行业印墨中有机溶剂,机械行业机械喷漆,金属制品产生的气味,汽车行业汽车的喷漆、干燥炉铸件生产设备排气,五金、家私厂喷涂设备排气等。


2)有机废气的危害:在生产中,有机废气的排放一直是一个很突出的问题,绝大多数有机废气对人体的健康都有害。如有机废气通过呼吸道和皮肤进入人体后,能给人的呼吸、血液、肝脏等系统和器官造成暂时性和永久性病变,尤其是苯并芘类多环芳烃能使人体直接致癌,危害人体健康。


有机废气还会造成严重的大气污染。一些有机物进入大气后,在一定条件下形成光化学烟雾,造成二次污染;一些有机物进入平流层后,在紫外线的照射下与臭氧发生光化学反应,造成臭氧层空洞;一些有机物具有恶臭污染和有害气体的两重性;还有一些有机物会引起温室效应。


3)废气治理方法:


a.水膜除尘+活性碳吸附法;


b.干式过滤除尘+活性碳吸附法


c.活性碳吸附+催化燃烧法;


2 酸雾废气


1)主要来源:化工、电子、冶金、电镀、纺织(化纤)、食品、机械制造等行业过程中排放的酸、碱性废气,如调味食品、制酸、酸洗、电镀、电解、蓄电池等。


2)酸雾废气的危害:酸雾气体造成的大气污染对人体造成的伤害较大, 尤其是对现场的操作工人、工厂附近的农作物、土壤造成直接的损害及间接影响往往是无法用金钱来衡量的。


3)废气治理方法:水膜填料塔+碱(酸)液吸收


3 熔炉废气、发电黑烟


1)主要来源:五金业、压铸业、铸造业熔炉设备在金属熔化过程中产生的金属粉尘颗粒及燃烧柴油(重油)过程中产生的SO2 、NOX有害气体,发电机工作时燃烧柴油(重油)过程中产生的废气等。


2)熔炉废气、发电机黑烟的危害:熔炉废气、发电机黑烟是形成酸雨的主要原因,造成的大气污染较大, 尤其是对现场的操作工人、工厂附近的农作物、土壤造成直接的损害及间接影响。



3)治理方法:旋流水洗喷淋法+碱液吸收


对熔炉废气、发电机组排出的尾气黑烟,按目前的常规做法是采用旋流板水洗喷淋法,采用旋流板式喷淋塔,气体在塔内由下向上高速运动,与自上向下喷出的洗涤液相接触,由于塔内设置了多层旋流板,它能增加气液接触面积和接触时间,使尾气与水在塔内和板面上充分接触。尾气中的污染物质碳黑在与喷淋水接触过程中,被水充分吸附,得以净化;尾气中NOx、SO2等气态污染物通过在喷淋水中加入一定比例的NaOH使喷淋水呈碱性,在喷淋过程中,水与尾气接触时,发生化学反应,使NOx、SO2等气态污染物得到中和达到良好的处理效果。



4 厨房油烟、火烟


1)主要来源:


油烟是各类型厂家厨房炒菜时产生的油烟气体分子。火烟是炉灶完全或不完全燃烧时排放的有害气体,是以游离炭为主的黑烟尘,呈絮状,易粘附在固体物质上,其余是COX、SO2、NOX,属高浓度烟尘气体


2)厨房油烟、火烟的危害:


厨房油烟含有许多对人体有严重危害的物质,会增加人们患肺癌的几率。厨房火烟也是主要大气污染之一,气体呈酸性,遇水容易形成酸,会污染水流及土壤和腐蚀建筑物。


3)治理方法:



A.油烟


a.过滤吸附式油烟净化:


过滤吸附式油烟气净化设备可以采用具有高吸油性能的有机高分子复合材料织物或毡、无机过滤材料(憎水珍珠岩、陶粒、焦炭等单独使用或组合使用),过滤材料可以与烟气流动方向垂直或平行的方向安置,净化效率需达80%以上。


b.静电式油烟净化:


静电沉积法是将油烟气引入高压电场,使油烟、火烟气中颗粒物荷电,在电场力作用下向集尘极运动并沉积下来。净化效率通常可达85%以上,压降较小。


c.低温等离子体法:


其原理是利用高压静电法的同时,在静电场的前端设置等离子场,利用其高能量所激发的大量性自由基对油烟粒子进行降解,使其黏度下降;在等离子产生过程中,高频放电产生的瞬时高能量,能打开一些有害气体的化学键,使其分解成单质原子或无害分子。该技术为目前市场上最为先进的油烟、火烟处理技术,去除率高(90%以下),处理后气体无异味,维护方便,但设备投资高。



B.火烟


对高浓度的厨房火烟气体采用旋流板水洗喷淋法,采用旋流板式喷淋塔,气体在塔内由下向上高速运动,与自上向下喷出的洗涤液相接触,由于塔内设置了多层旋流板,它能增加气液接触面积和接触时间,使尾气与水在塔内和板面上充分接触。尾气中的污染物质碳黑在与喷淋水接触过程中,被水充分吸附,得以净化;尾气中NOx、SO2等气态污染物通过在喷淋水中加入一定比例的NaOH使喷淋水呈碱性,在喷淋过程中,水与尾气接触时,发生化学反应,使NOx、SO2等气态污染物得到中和达到良好的处理效果。

In recent years, the prevention and control of air pollution has attracted global attention, and the waste gas treatment has attracted the attention of various industries. Air pollution is one of the most outstanding environmental problems in the world. the main source of pollutants is industrial waste gas. because of the different kinds of pollutants produced by industrial waste gas, different kinds of pollutants should be treated with different treatment processes. 




1. organic waste gas




1 ) main sources: various organic waste gases will be produced in industrial production, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ketones and amines. The source of these exhaust gases is very extensive, some chemical industry petrochemical, organic synthesis reaction equipment exhaust, printing industry printing ink organic solvents, mechanical industry machinery painting, metal products produced smell, automobile industry automobile paint, kiln casting production equipment exhaust, hardware, furniture factory spray equipment exhaust and so on. 




2 ) the harm of organic waste gas: in the production, the emission of organic waste gas has been a prominent problem, the vast majority of organic waste gas is harmful to human health. If organic waste gas enters the human body through the respiratory tract and skin, it can cause temporary and permanent pathological changes to the respiratory, blood, liver and other systems and organs, especially the benzo [ a ] pyrene polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can cause direct cancer to the human body and endanger human health. 




Organic waste gas can also cause serious air pollution. When some organic substances enter the atmosphere, photochemical smog is formed under certain conditions, resulting in secondary pollution. When some organic substances enter the stratosphere, photochemical reaction with ozone occurs under ultraviolet radiation, resulting in the hole of the ozone layer. Some organic compounds have the dual nature of odor pollution and harmful gases; There are also some organic compounds that can cause the greenhouse effect. 




3 ) waste gas treatment methods:




A water film dust removal + activated carbon adsorption method; 




B dry filter dust removal + activated carbon adsorption method




C active carbon adsorption + catalytic combustion method; 




2. waste gas from acid fog




1 ) main sources: acid and alkaline waste gas discharged in the process of chemical industry, electronics, metallurgy, electroplating, textile ( chemical fiber ), food, machinery manufacturing, etc., such as seasoning food, acid making, pickling, electroplating, electrolysis, battery, etc. 




2 ) the harm of acid mist exhaust gas: the air pollution caused by acid mist is harmful to the human body, especially the workers at the spot, the crops near the factory, the soil which has direct damage and indirect effect can not be measured by money. 




3 ) waste gas treatment method: water film packing tower + alkali ( acid ) liquid absorption




3. furnace waste gas, black smoke




1 ) main sources: metal dust particles produced by the metal industry, die casting industry, foundry melting furnace equipment during the metal melting process, SO2, NOx harmful gas produced in the process of burning diesel ( heavy oil ), and waste gas produced during the combustion of diesel ( heavy oil ) during the work of the generator. 




2 ) hazard of exhaust gas from smelter and generator smoke: exhaust gas from smelter and black smoke from generator are the main cause of acid rain, and the atmospheric pollution is large, especially the direct damage and indirect effect on workers at the site, crops near the factory, soil in the vicinity. 







3 ) treatment method: rotary flow washing spray method + lye absorption




For the exhaust gas from the exhaust gas and power generating set, the cyclone plate water spray method is used, and the swirling plate spray tower is used. the gas in the tower is moved upward and high speed, contacting with the washing liquid discharged from the top down. because of the multi - layer swirl board, it can increase the contact area and contact time of the gas liquid, so that the tail gas is fully contact with the water in the tower and the board. The carbon black in the tail gas is fully adsorbed and purified by water during the contact with the spray water. Nox, SO2 and other gaseous pollutants in the tail gas by adding a certain proportion of NaOH into the spray water to make the spray water alkaline, in the spray process, when water and tail gas contact, chemical reaction occurs, so that the NOx, SO2 and other gaseous pollutants are neutralized to achieve good treatment effect. 







4. kitchen lampblack, fire smoke




1 ) main sources:




The lampblack is the lampblack gas molecule that produces when the kitchen a fried dish of each type manufacturer. Fire smoke is the harmful gas emitted when the stove is completely or not completely burning, it is the black smoke mainly with free carbon, which is flocculent, easy to adhere to the solid matter, the rest is Cox, SO2, NOx, which belongs to the high concentration of smoke and dust gas




2 ) the harm of kitchen fume and fire smoke:




Kitchen lampblack contains many substances that have serious harm to the human body, will increase people's risk of lung cancer. Kitchen fire smoke is also one of the main air pollution, the gas is acidic, when water is easy to form acid, will pollute water flow and soil and corrosion buildings. 




( 3 ) methods of governance :







A lampblack




A filtering adsorption - type cooking fume cleaning